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Computer Introduction

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What is Computer?

A computer is an electronic device , operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept data (input), process the data according to specified rules, produce information (output), and store the information for future use.

Functionalities of a computer

Any digital computer Carries out five functions in gross terms.

  1.  Takes data as input.
  2.  Stores the data and converts it into useful information.
  3. Process the data and converts it into useful information.
  4. Generates the output
  5. Control all the above four-step.

Types of Computer

  1. Super Computer
  2. Main Frame Computer
  3. Mini Computer
  4. Micro Computer 
  • Desktop
  • Laptop
  • Palmtop

Main Parts of Computer

  1. Hardware
  2. sofware


Software refers to programs and data that enable computers and electronic devices to perform specific tasks. It comes in two main types: system software (e.g., operating systems) that manages the computer’s resources, and application software (e.g., word processors) that serves users’ needs. Programmers write software using programming languages.

 Examples of Sofware:

  • Operating system
  • Browser
  • Application like MS Word


Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer or electronic device. It includes the tangible parts such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage devices, motherboard, input and output devices, graphics processing unit (GPU), and peripherals. Hardware works together to execute software instructions and enable various computing tasks.

 Examples of hardware:

  • Mouse 
  • Keyboard
  • Microphone
  • Speaker
  • Monitor

Language of Computer

The language of a computer is primarily binary code, which uses the symbols 0 and 1 to represent data and instructions. It is the basic language that computers understand and process. However, higher-level programming languages have been developed to make programming more accessible to humans. These languages have a more readable syntax and are closer to natural languages. Programmers write code in these languages, which is then translated into binary code for the computer to execute

Internal Cpmponents

  1. Motherboard
  2. Expansion Slots
  3. Cmos Battery
  4. Cooling Fan
  5. Network Card
  6. Graphic Card
  7. Power Supply  Unit (SMPS)
  8. Memory Slots
  9. Central Processing Unit

How computer memory is measured?

All computer work on a binary numbering system. They process data in one’s or 0. This one or 0 level of storage is called a Bit.


 This 1 or 0 level of storage is called a Bit.


A byte consists of 8 bits 

Kilo Byte

A kilobyte ( KB ) consists of 1024 bytes.

Mega Byte

A Megabyte (MB) consists of 1024 kilobytes.

Giga Byte

A Gigabytes (GB) consists of 1024 Megabytes

Tera Byte

A Terabytes (TB) consists of 1024 Gigabytes

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